There are many designs of table pepper grinders, but the internal parts are essentially the same. The grinding mechanism, or mill, is usually made of stainless steel or hard ceramic. As the grinder is turned, gravity pulls the peppercorns into the milling mechanism and breaks them until they are small enough to fall through. The assembly process is simple.
Insert the milling mechanism and drive shaft through the base of the pepper grinder. The base should be a have an inset area for the mill that forms a snug fit around it.
Place the cover plate on the base of the grinder and secure it over the mill with screws.
Turn the grinder upright and hold the drive shaft in the center as you fill the chamber to 75 percent capacity with peppercorns.
Fit the hole in the top section of the pepper grinder over the drive shaft and thread the nut to hold it in place.
Adjust the tension of the nut tighter and looser to make the grind finer and more coarse respectively.
Keep your grinder in a dry environment to avoid internal parts from rusting and peppercorns from absorbing moisture and swelling.
Crank the grinder from 6 to 8 inches above foods you intend to season. This technique is used by professional chefs to get more even dispersion of pepper.
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Spice Grinder Grain Mills: Hand Crank Spice Grinders