Nioxin is a brand of eight scalp and hair care systems that treat thinning hair. Nioxin does not stimulate hair growth, but rather increases the health of the scalp and enhances the condition of hair already present. Nioxin Scalp Treatment System 2 contains two main active ingredients as well as vitamins, enzymes and other biologically important chemicals.
The main active ingredient in Nioxin is phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, or ensulizole, which is 4 percent of the total product, according to Nioxin Research Laboratories. This chemical is normally used as a sunscreen which absorbs UVB light in the 280 to 320 nm range. Ensulizole is a white to pale beige powder. By including a sunscreen in Nioxin, the scalp is protected from sunburn and in healthier condition to produce full and healthy hair.
The second active ingredient in Nioxin is sulisobenzone, which is 1.6 percent of the total product. Sulisobenzone is used as a sunscreen. Sulisobenzone is an off-white to yellow powder.
Nioxin includes several vitamins in its formula to nourish the scalp and hair follicles, as B vitamins are sometimes deficient in people with thinning or unhealthy hair. B vitamins in Nioxin include pantothenic acid, or vitamin B5, folic acid or vitamin B9, niacin or vitamin B3, biotin, or vitamin B7, pyridoxine or vitamin B6, cyano-cobalamin, a synthetic form of vitamin B12, and thiamine or vitamin B1.
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Nioxin also includes the chemicals ubiquinone, co-enzyme A, glycoproteins, clorphenesin, and melanin, according to Nioxin Research Laboratories.
Ubiquinone, commonly known as co-enzyme Q10, is an antioxidant and may boost the immune system, creating a healthier scalp environment. Co-enzyme A is in a complex with pantothenic acid or vitamin B5, and is required for many biochemical reactions including synthesis of fats and acetylation of proteins important for cell division.
Glycoproteins are proteins that are important for cell signaling, growth and division. Clorphenesin is an antifungal with antibacterial properties and melanin produces hair color.
Dr. Michele Noonan is author of "Train Your Brain To Get Thin," has published in journals including the "Journal of Neuroscience" and appears as a science expert on TV and radio shows. Noonan is a former Caltech scientist with a Ph.D. in neuroscience from University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and a psychology B.A. from Boston College.