Mediterranean spices are those spices commonly used in Mediterranean cuisines, which can be roughly defined as the cuisines of Southern Europe, Northern Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean.
Such spices as saffron, nutmeg, cinnamon, ginger and cloves tend to dominate in North African cuisine. Rosemary, thyme, basil, bay laurel, parsley and sage are more characteristic of Southern European cuisine. Dill, mint, sumac and allspice are popular in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Mediterranean spices may be used in a number of countries, but for different applications. For instance, in France, cinnamon is used exclusively to enhance the flavor of sweet dishes, while it is used in savory dishes as well in Turkey.
Mediterranean countries are bounded by the Mediterranean Sea; seafood, therefore, plays an important part in all Mediterranean cuisines. Tomatoes, eggplant, lamb and chickpeas are also pervasive. Spices in Mediterranean cuisines are used to enhance these ingredients.
Mediterranean cuisines are famed for the variety and freshness of their spices. Although the foods of the Mediterranean are extremely varied, garlic and olive oil are common elements across all cuisines.
The Mediterranean region is exceptionally fertile, making it easy for herbs and spices to flourish there. Additionally, proximity to trade routes historically allowed Mediterranean countries more access to spices than landlocked countries.
References and ResourcesBnet: Journey Through North Africa
Diner's Digest: Flavors of the Mediterranean
Calascio.com: Italian Spices and Herbs
ResourcesPractically Edible.com: Sicilian Food
Practically Edible.com: Turkish Food
Practically Edible.com: Byzantine Food