Sucrose is a disaccharide formed from the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. These latter monosaccharides are basic units of carbohydrates that contain weakened intermolecular forces. Due to this feeble bond, water has an easier time breaking up the carbohydrates that compose sucrose and dissolving them.
Solids that can be dissolved into water are deemed “soluble.” This dissolution takes place when the molecules in the water break down the molecules in said solids and these molecules then merge with the water.
Water, in general, is a great solvent because of its ability to bond with items that contain an electrical charge. The molecular formula that makes up sucrose, C12H22O11, contains polar molecules that give off electrical charges when mixed with water molecules.
The polar or partially charged molecules in water meet the polar molecules in sucrose and energy is created. This reaction causes hydrogen bonds in water to break up and open slots are essentially formed for the sucrose molecules to fit into.
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Once open spaces are created within the water molecules, sucrose molecules move in and are surrounded by the water molecules. It is during this moment that the water molecules bind with the sucrose molecules and dissolution occurs.
Food lovers are likely to find the most benefit from sucrose's solubility in water. Those looking to sweeten the taste of their food will often add sucrose to drinks such as coffee, juice and tea, which consist of water primarily.