Coffee beans are actually the seeds of a fruit that grow on a variety of trees across the world. The process for actually creating the bean is quite a long one that involves picking the fruit, getting the seeds, and drying and roasting them until they are the dark brown coffee beans we are familiar with. There are two classes of coffee bean plants used for roasting and drinking. These are the Arabica and Robusta. The Robusta variety contains more caffeine.
Pick the fruit from the tree, placing the red fruit in one basket and the green fruit in another basket. The red beans are lower in acid content and higher in aromatic oils and the green beans are used to make finer coffees. The difference between them relates to taste and roasting them separately will produce purer flavor but the process for making the coffee beans is the same, so once you have separated them, choose which color bean you will roast first.
Remove the surrounding fruit off the bean by soaking and scouring it, making sure that the flesh of the fruit is completely removed.
Dry the beans in the sun until the bean is only mildly damp. Spread them out over a sheet in the sun where they will be undisturbed. This is the fermentation process.
Sort through the beans, discarding any that appear damaged, and polish the beans you will be using by rubbing them with a cloth to remove any skin or debris. These beans can be aged in a dry, cool place in the dark, anywhere from one year to eight years.
Roast the beans at 400 degrees F. You will notice them turn brown as the oil from within the bean is released giving the coffee its flavor. The bean will also double in size and crack. This is all normal.
Allow the beans to air out, somewhere that allows them to be undisturbed. This can be on a counter top or anywhere convenient. The beans will produce carbon dioxide for up to three weeks after roasting so this airing process is essential. After this is done, you will now have coffee beans ready to be ground for coffee.